# Relationships

# Setting up Controller

Defining model relationship controller is very similar to defining model controller.

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers\Api;

use App\Models\Post;
use Orion\Http\Controllers\RelationController;

class PostCommentsController extends RelationController
{
    /**
     * Fully-qualified model class name
     */
    protected $model = Post::class; // or "App\Models\Post"

    /**
     * Name of the relationship as it is defined on the Post model
     */
    protected $relation = 'comments';
}

At this point, you do not need to worry about different relationship types - controllers are defined in the same way for all types of the relationships.

# Fillable pivot fields and casting

If you are defining the controller for belongsToMany or morphToMany relation type and have additional fields on pivot table, there are two additional properties to note - protected $pivotFillable and protected $pivotJson.

The $pivotFillable property needs to contain a list of pivot table fields that can be updated via attach, sync, toggle and updatePivot endpoints.

The $pivotJson property should contain a list of json fields on the pivot table that you would like to automatically cast to/from array. If you have defined $casts property on the related Pivot model, then you can skip it.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Model relationship controllers always extend Orion\Http\Controllers\RelationController
  • $model property is set to a fully qualified model class name
  • $relation property is set to the exact relationship name as it is defined on the model

# Setting up Routes

Routes, unlike controllers, are defined in a different way for each relationship type.

<?php

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Route;
use Orion\Facades\Orion;
use App\Http\Controllers\ProfileImageController;
...

Route::group(['as' => 'api.'], function() {
    ...
    Orion::hasOneResource('profiles', 'image', ProfileImageController::class);
    Orion::hasManyResource('users', 'posts', UserPostsController::class);
    Orion::belongsToResource('posts', 'user', PostUserController::class);
    Orion::belongsToManyResource('users', 'roles', UserRolesController::class);
    Orion::hasOneThroughResource('posts', 'meta', PostMetaController::class);
    Orion::hasManyThroughResource('users', 'comments', UserCommentsController::class);
    Orion::morphOneResource('posts', 'image', PostImageController::class);
    Orion::morphManyResource('posts', 'comments', PostCommentsController::class);
    Orion::morphToResource('images', 'post', ImagePostController::class);
    Orion::morphToManyResource('posts', 'tags', PostTagsController::class);
    Orion::morphedByManyResource('tags', 'posts', TagsPostsController::class);
    ...
});

# Soft Deletes

If your relation model uses SoftDeletes trait and you would like to expose the same functionality via API, call withSoftDeletes method upon resource registration.

<?php

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Route;
use Orion\Facades\Orion;
use App\Http\Controllers\UserPostsController;

Route::group(['as' => 'api.'], function() {
    ...
    Orion::hasManyResource('users', 'posts', UserPostsController::class)->withSoftDeletes();
    ...
});

This will introduce restore and batchRestore endpoints. To learn how to permanently delete a resource via API (force delete), take a look at the related Query Parameters section.

+--------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| Domain | Method    | URI                                             | Name                                   | Action                                                                    | Middleware                                      |
+--------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
...
|        | POST      | api/users/{user}/posts/{post}/restore           | api.users.relation.posts.restore       | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@restore                      | api                                             |
|        | POST      | api/users/{user}/posts/batch/restore            | api.users.relation.posts.batchRestore  | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@batchRestore                 | api                                             |

# One to One

The following relationships are considered one-to-one relationships:

  • hasOne
  • hasOneThrough
  • morphOne
  • belongsTo (inverse of the hasMany relation)
  • morphTo (inverse of the morphMany relation)

For one-to-one relationships, Laravel Orion provides 7 endpoints (basically endpoints for CRUD operations): store, show, update, destroy, batchStore, batchUpdate, batchDestroy

ATTENTION

The belongsTo and morphTo relations are not provided with store endpoint.

Example route registration

Orion::hasOneResource('profiles', 'image' , ProfileImageController::class);

Example available endpoints

+-----------+-------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Method    | URI                                             | Name                                     | Action                                                                    |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| POST      | api/profiles/{profile}/image                    | api.profiles.relation.image.store        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\ProfileImageController@store                     |
| GET|HEAD  | api/profiles/{profile}/image/{image?}           | api.profiles.relation.image.show         | App\Http\Controllers\Api\ProfileImageController@show                      |
| PATCH|PUT | api/profiles/{profile}/image/{image?}           | api.profiles.relation.image.update       | App\Http\Controllers\Api\ProfileImageController@update                    |
| DELETE    | api/profiles/{profile}/image/{image?}           | api.profiles.relation.image.destroy      | App\Http\Controllers\Api\ProfileImageController@destroy                   |
| POST      | api/profiles/{profile}/image/batch              | api.profiles.relation.image.batchStore   | App\Http\Controllers\Api\ProfileImageController@batchStore                |
| PATCH     | api/profiles/{profile}/image/batch              | api.profiles.relation.image.batchUpdate  | App\Http\Controllers\Api\ProfileImageController@batchUpdate               |
| DELETE    | api/profiles/{profile}/image/batch              | api.profiles.relation.image.batchDestroy | App\Http\Controllers\Api\ProfileImageController@batchDestroy              |

TIP

Notice that the last parameter is marked as optional. Because it's a one-to-one relation, you can access the endpoint without providing related key - Laravel Orion will take care of it 🙂

hasOne, hasOneThrough, morphOne, belongsTo, and morphTo relations do not require the related resource key.

# One to Many

The following relationships are considered one-to-many relationships:

  • hasMany
  • hasManyThrough
  • morphMany

For one-to-many relationships, Laravel Orion provides 11 endpoints (endpoints for CRUD operations, searching, associating, and dissociating): index, search, store, show, update, destroy, associate, dissociate, batchStore, batchUpdate, batchDestroy

Example route registration

Orion::hasManyResource('users', 'posts' , UserPostsController::class);

Example available endpoints

+-----------+-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Method    | URI                                             | Name                                   | Action                                                                    |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GET|HEAD  | api/users/{user}/posts                          | api.users.relation.posts.index         | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@index                        |
| POST      | api/users/{user}/posts/search                   | api.users.relation.posts.search        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@index                        |
| POST      | api/users/{user}/posts                          | api.users.relation.posts.store         | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@store                        |
| GET|HEAD  | api/users/{user}/posts/{post}                   | api.users.relation.posts.show          | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@show                         |
| PATCH     | api/users/{user}/posts/{post}                   | api.users.relation.posts.update        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@update                       |
| PUT       | api/users/{user}/posts/{post}                   | api.users.relation.posts.update        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@update                       |
| DELETE    | api/users/{user}/posts/{post}                   | api.users.relation.posts.destroy       | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@destroy                      |
| POST      | api/users/{user}/posts/associate                | api.users.relation.posts.associate     | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@associate                    |
| DELETE    | api/users/{user}/posts/{post}/dissociate        | api.users.relation.posts.dissociate    | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@dissociate                   |
| POST      | api/users/{user}/posts/batch                    | api.users.relation.posts.batchStore    | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@batchStore                   |
| PATCH     | api/users/{user}/posts/batch                    | api.users.relation.posts.batchUpdate   | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@batchUpdate                  |
| DELETE    | api/users/{user}/posts/batch                    | api.users.relation.posts.batchDestroy  | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserPostsController@batchDestroy                 |

# Associating

One-to-many relation resource provides associate endpoint to associate relation model with a parent model.

Request payload to the endpoint has only one field - related_key. In our example, related_key would be ID of a post to be associated with user.

Example request:

// (POST) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/posts/associate
{
    "related_key" : 5
}

# Dissociating

One-to-many relation resource also provides dissociate endpoint to dissociate relation model from its parent model.

There is no payload in request for this endpoint, however notice the {post} route parameter in the example routes above - this would be ID of a post to be dissociated from a user.

# Many to Many

The following relationships are considered many-to-many relationships:

  • belongsToMany
  • morphToMany

For many-to-many relationships, Laravel Orion provides 14 endpoints (endpoints for CRUD operations, searching, attaching, detaching, syncing, toggling, and updating pivot): index, search, store, show, update, destroy, attach, detach, sync, toggle, pivot, batchStore, batchUpdate, batchDestroy

Example route registration

Orion::belongsToManyResource('users', 'roles' , UserRolesController::class);

Example available endpoints

+-----------+-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Method    | URI                                             | Name                                   | Action                                                                    |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GET|HEAD  | api/users/{user}/roles                          | api.users.relation.roles.index         | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@index                        |
| POST      | api/users/{user}/roles/search                   | api.users.relation.roles.search        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@index                        |
| POST      | api/users/{user}/roles                          | api.users.relation.roles.store         | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@store                        |
| GET|HEAD  | api/users/{user}/roles/{role}                   | api.users.relation.roles.show          | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@show                         |
| PATCH     | api/users/{user}/roles/{role}                   | api.users.relation.roles.update        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@update                       |
| PUT       | api/users/{user}/roles/{role}                   | api.users.relation.roles.update        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@update                       |
| DELETE    | api/users/{user}/roles/{role}                   | api.users.relation.roles.destroy       | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@destroy                      |
| POST      | api/users/{user}/roles/attach                   | api.users.relation.roles.attach        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@attach                       |
| DELETE    | api/users/{user}/roles/detach                   | api.users.relation.roles.detach        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@detach                       |
| PATCH     | api/users/{user}/roles/sync                     | api.users.relation.roles.sync          | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@sync                         |
| PATCH     | api/users/{user}/roles/toggle                   | api.users.relation.roles.toggle        | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@toggle                       |
| PATCH     | api/users/{user}/roles/{role}/pivot             | api.users.relation.roles.pivot         | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@updatePivot                  |
| POST      | api/users/{user}/roles/batch                    | api.users.relation.roles.batchStore    | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@batchStore                   |
| PATCH     | api/users/{user}/roles/batch                    | api.users.relation.roles.batchUpdate   | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@batchUpdate                  |
| DELETE    | api/users/{user}/roles/batch                    | api.users.relation.roles.batchDestroy  | App\Http\Controllers\Api\UserRolesController@batchDestroy                 |

ATTENTION

Do not forget to define fillable pivot fields as described in Fillable pivot fields and casting section, if you have additional fields on pivot table, otherwise attach, sync, toggle and updatePivot endpoints may not work as expected for these fields.

# Attaching

Many-to-many relation resource provides attach endpoint to attach one or multiple related models to another model. For details on how attaching/detaching of related models works in Laravel, take a look at Attaching / Detaching section in Laravel Documenation.

Request payload consist of required resources and optional duplicates fields. Note, that duplicates field can also be provided as query parameter.

The resources field might be an array or an object. If it is an array, then array items would be IDs of related models that you would like to attach. If it is an object, then its keys would be IDs of related models and values - objects containing pivot table fields to be set upon attaching the related model.

By default duplicates parameter is false. If set to true, attaching the same related model multiple times would result in duplicated entries in pivot table.

Example request (array version):

// (POST) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/roles/attach
{
    "resources" : [3,4,7]
}

Example request (object version):

// (POST) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/roles/attach
{
    "resources" : {
        "3" : {
            "example_pivot_field" : "value A",
            ...
        },
        "4" : {
            "example_pivot_field" : "value B",
            ...
        },
        "7" : {
            "example_pivot_field" : "value C",
            ...
        }
    }
}

# Detaching

Many-to-many relation resource provides detach endpoint to detach one or multiple related models from the model they are attached to.

Request payload consist of only one field resources.

Similar to the attach endpoint, resources field might be an array or an object. By providing support for object representation of resources field in this method, it makes it easier for the frontend to attach/detach related resources in a standardized way. You can also optionally store additional data in these objects that can be used in beforeDetach or afterDetach hooks.

Example request (array version):

// (DELETE) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/roles/detach
{
    "resources" : [3,4,7]
}

Example request (object version):

// (DELETE) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/roles/detach
{
    "resources" : {
        "3" : {},
        "4" : {
            "some_field" : "some value",
            ...
        },
        "7" : {},
    }
}

# Syncing

Many-to-many relation resource provides sync endpoint to sync associations of one or multiple related models with another model. For details on how syncing of related models works in Laravel, take a look at Syncing Associations section in Laravel Documentation.

Request payload consist of required resources and optional detaching fields. Note, that detaching field can also be provided as query parameter.

The resources field might be an array or an object. If it is an array, then array items would be IDs of related models that you would like to sync. If it is an object, then its keys would be IDs of related models and values - objects containing pivot table fields to be set upon syncing the related model.

By default detaching parameter is true. If set to false, related models that are missing in the payload, but preset in pivot table won't be detached.

Example request (array version):

// (PATCH) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/roles/sync
{
    "resources" : [3,4]
}

Example request (object version):

// (PATCH) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/roles/sync
{
    "resources" : {
        "3" : {
            "example_pivot_field" : "value A",
            ...
        },
        "4" : {
            "example_pivot_field" : "value B",
            ...
        },
    }
}

# Toggling

Many-to-many relation resource provides toggle endpoint to "toggle" the attachment status of one or multiple related models. For details on how "toggling" of related models works in Laravel, take a look at Toggling Associations section in Laravel Documenation.

Request payload consist of only one field resources. Same as the sync endpoint, resources field might be an array or an object.

Example request (array version):

// (PATCH) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/roles/toggle
{
    "resources" : [3,4]
}

Example request (object version):

// (PATCH) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/roles/toggle
{
    "resources" : {
        "3" : {
            "example_pivot_field" : "value A",
            ...
        },
        "4" : {
            "example_pivot_field" : "value B",
            ...
        },
    }
}

# Updating pivot

Many-to-many relation resource provides pivot endpoint to update pivot row of one of the related models. For details on how pivot row is updated, take a look at Updating A Record On A Pivot Table section in Laravel Documentation.

Request payload consist of only one field pivot. Its properties are pivot table fields that will be updated for the related model.

Example request:

// (PATCH) https://myapp.com/api/users/{user}/roles/{role}/pivot
{
    "pivot" : { // properties correspond to the columns in pivot table
        "example_pivot_field" : "updated value",
        "another_pivot_field" : "new value"
        ...
    }
}

# Customizing Keys

Just like model resources, relation resources are using primary key to fetch resources from the database.

# Customizing relation resource key

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers\Api;

use App\Models\Team;
use Orion\Http\Controllers\RelationController;

class TeamPostsController extends RelationController
{
    /**
     * Fully-qualified model class name
     */
    protected $model = Team::class; // or "App\Models\Team"
    
    /**
     * Name of the relationship as it is defined on the Post model
     */
    protected $relation = 'posts';

    /**
     * The name of the field used to fetch a resource from the database.
     *
     * @return string
     */
    protected function keyName(): string
    {
        return 'slug'; // "slug" here is the field on the Post model (posts relation)
    }
}

# Customizing parent resource key

If both parent and relation resources use custom keys, you would also need to override the parentKeyName method:

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers\Api;

use App\Models\Team;
use Orion\Http\Controllers\RelationController;

class TeamPostsController extends RelationController
{
    /**
     * Fully-qualified model class name
     */
    protected $model = Team::class; // or "App\Models\Team"
    
    /**
     * Name of the relationship as it is defined on the Post model
     */
    protected $relation = 'posts';

     /**
     * The name of the field used to fetch parent resource from the database.
     *
     * @return string
     */
    protected function parentKeyName(): string
    {
        return 'short_name'; // "short_name" here is the field on the Team model
    }

    /**
     * The name of the field used to fetch a resource from the database.
     *
     * @return string
     */
    protected function keyName(): string
    {
        return 'slug'; // "slug" here is the field on the Post model (posts relation)
    }
}

# Customizing Queries

It is possible, same as in model controllers, to redefine Eloquent queries for each endpoint. The only major difference is that each endpoint in relation controller also has "build" and "run" methods for fetching relation's parent model.

# Standard operations methods

Method Build (parent) Run (parent) Build Run Perform
index buildIndexParentFetchQuery runIndexParentFetchQuery buildIndexFetchQuery runIndexFetchQuery -
store buildStoreParentFetchQuery runStoreParentFetchQuery - - performStore
show buildShowParentFetchQuery runShowParentFetchQuery buildShowFetchQuery buildShowFetchQuery -
update buildUpdateParentFetchQuery runUpdateParentFetchQuery buildUpdateFetchQuery buildUpdateFetchQuery performUpdate
destroy buildDestroyParentFetchQuery runDestroyParentFetchQuery buildDestroyFetchQuery buildDestroyFetchQuery performDestroy
restore buildRestoreParentFetchQuery runRestoreParentFetchQuery buildRestoreFetchQuery buildRestoreFetchQuery performRestore

# One-to-many operations methods

Method Build (parent) Run (parent) Build Run Perform
associate buildAssociateParentFetchQuery runAssociateParentFetchQuery buildAssociateFetchQuery runAssociateFetchQuery performAssociate
dissociate buildDissociateParentFetchQuery runDissociateParentFetchQuery buildDissociateFetchQuery runDissociateFetchQuery performDissociate

# Many-to-many operations methods

Method Build (parent) Run (parent) Build Run Perform
attach buildAttachParentFetchQuery runAttachParentFetchQuery - - performAttach
detach buildDetachParentFetchQuery runDetachParentFetchQuery - - performDetach
sync buildSyncParentFetchQuery runSyncParentFetchQuery - - performSync
toggle buildToggleParentFetchQuery runToggleParentFetchQuery - - performToggle
updatePivot buildUpdatePivotParentFetchQuery runUpdatePivotParentFetchQuery - - performUpdatePivot